The Pirate Bay (TPB) is a well-known file-sharing platform that allows people to download illegal or, at the very least, unauthorised copyright-protected content. It is effectively a search engine which classifies and indexes copyright-protected materials, although it does not upload any content itself. TPB’s “BitTorrent Index” operates specifically by allowing indexation of metadata relating to such materials on peer-to-peer networks, enabling the public to make use of the data. The main internet service providers have blocked TPB in the UK following a ruling in 2012 in a case brought by the record industry (Dramatico Entertainment v BSkyB).
The case is Stichting Brein v Ziggo BV and XS4ALL Internet (C-610/15). It was referred to the CJEU by the highest court in the Netherlands. The CJEU declared that The Pirate Bay website makes a “communication to the public”, in the words of the InfoSoc/Copyright Directive 2001/29/EU (Directive), through its indexation of copyright-infringing material.
Copyright-owners have the exclusive right to allow, prevent or restrict communication of their works to the public. Communication may therefore be copyright infringement even though the “mere provision” of facilities that could enable such communication is not itself infringing. The operation of TPB does not give direct access to any copyright works. The BitTorrent Index simply makes the material easier to access and download. The CJEU has declared this to be an act of communication to the public so copyright infringement therefore takes place.
TPB was not itself a party in the case. However, the CJEU ruled that the two defendant companies in the case, as internet service providers, could be ordered to block access to TPB or to similar platforms.
The case widens the scope of copyright protection of digital works because of the liberal view of “communication to the public” taken by the CJEU.
• Owners of copyright in music and other files on file-sharing platforms are now in a much stronger position to stop infringements.
• The decision reflects one aim of the Directive which is to provide a high level of protection for creators of original works. CJEU decisions recently have tended to side with the interests of copyright-owners.
• As a result, it is likely that many more blocking orders may be granted by the courts in EU countries.
• The decision is an EU-wide ruling which affects the interpretation of the Directive. After Brexit, the UK could develop its own copyright law independently of the EU. However, given that the UK courts paved the way for the decision in the Dramatico case, and because of the commercial need for continued harmonisation of IP laws, it would seem unlikely that in this respect UK copyright law would diverge significantly in the post-Brexit future.
Laurie Heizler, Of Counsel, Intellectual Property, Technology & Media, Ecovis UK Legal Barlow Robbins LLP
Ecovis is a leading global consulting firm with its origins in Continental Europe. It has over 5,000 people operating in over 60 countries. Its consulting focus and core competencies lie in the areas of tax consultation, accounting, auditing and legal advice.
The particular strength of Ecovis is the combination of personal advice at a local level with the general expertise of an international and interdisciplinary network of professionals. Every Ecovis office can rely on qualified specialists in the back offices as well as on the specific industrial or national know-how of all the Ecovis experts worldwide. This diversified expertise provides clients with effective support, especially in the fields of international transactions and investments – from preparation in the client’s home country to support in the target country.
In its consulting work Ecovis concentrates mainly on mid-sized firms. Both nationally and internationally, its one-stop-shop concept ensures all-round support in legal, fiscal, managerial and administrative issues.
The name Ecovis, a combination of the terms economy and vision, expresses both its international character and its focus on the future and growth.
ECOVIS AG Steuerberatungsgesellschaft
Telefon: +49 (30) 310008555
Telefax: +49 (30) 310008556
ECOVIS AG Steuerberatungsgesellschaft*
Telefon: +49 (89) 5898-266